My big question is: is there some way to "test" the pins in the array and tell if someting is wrong, and then print it to Serial.Println()?What test do you want to apply ? You could write something that set each of the pins HIGH in turn and read the output using another pin I suppose. If a particular pin does not produce LOW and HIGH outputs at the appropriate time then report it. But how do you know that the pin used to read the output is working ?
More usefully perhaps, flash each LED in turn at startup and watch them. Simple to do and use. No need to even have a PC connected.