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1  Using Arduino / Programming Questions / Re: &operator on: January 18, 2013, 05:14:06 am
Oh yes I see. I am taking it that the overloaded operator should work with something on the right in the form of (char c) or is that a type casting? I will find this out from some good documentation I am sure. Thank you for the great reply.
2  Using Arduino / Programming Questions / Re: &operator on: January 18, 2013, 02:54:46 am
What does this mean mean exactly? I'm curious about the use of the operator "<<" is this bit shift?

MyTinyGps << 'a' << 'b' << 'c';
3  Using Arduino / Programming Questions / &operator on: January 18, 2013, 02:29:43 am
I am having a bit of trouble determining the exact meaning of this line here:

TinyGPS &operator << (char c) {encode(c); return *this;}

It is of course part of the library TinyGPS which I am using to parse an NMEA string from my EM-406A GPS Sensor. I am taking apart the library right now so I can determine the cause of a locking issue with the sensor. I came across this and although I have a good understandings of the basics of C++ I am confused by this. Does anyone know what exactly is happening with this line. I am pasting the context of the whole code below which comes from TinyGPS.h. The rest of it looks pretty straightforward to me so far.

TinyGPS - a small GPS library for Arduino providing basic NMEA parsing
Based on work by and "distance_to" and "course_to" courtesy of Maarten Lamers.
Suggestion to add satellites(), course_to(), and cardinal(), by Matt Monson.
Copyright (C) 2008-2012 Mikal Hart
All rights reserved.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

#ifndef TinyGPS_h
#define TinyGPS_h

#if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
#include "Arduino.h"
#include "WProgram.h"

#define _GPS_VERSION 12 // software version of this library
#define _GPS_MPH_PER_KNOT 1.15077945
#define _GPS_MPS_PER_KNOT 0.51444444
#define _GPS_KMPH_PER_KNOT 1.852
#define _GPS_MILES_PER_METER 0.00062137112
#define _GPS_KM_PER_METER 0.001
// #define _GPS_NO_STATS

class TinyGPS
  enum {


  bool encode(char c); // process one character received from GPS
  TinyGPS &operator << (char c) {encode(c); return *this;}

  // lat/long in hundred thousandths of a degree and age of fix in milliseconds
  void get_position(long *latitude, long *longitude, unsigned long *fix_age = 0);

  // date as ddmmyy, time as hhmmsscc, and age in milliseconds
  void get_datetime(unsigned long *date, unsigned long *time, unsigned long *age = 0);

  // signed altitude in centimeters (from GPGGA sentence)
  inline long altitude() { return _altitude; }

  // course in last full GPRMC sentence in 100th of a degree
  inline unsigned long course() { return _course; }

  // speed in last full GPRMC sentence in 100ths of a knot
  inline unsigned long speed() { return _speed; }

  // satellites used in last full GPGGA sentence
  inline unsigned short satellites() { return _numsats; }

  // horizontal dilution of precision in 100ths
  inline unsigned long hdop() { return _hdop; }

  void f_get_position(float *latitude, float *longitude, unsigned long *fix_age = 0);
  void crack_datetime(int *year, byte *month, byte *day,
    byte *hour, byte *minute, byte *second, byte *hundredths = 0, unsigned long *fix_age = 0);
  float f_altitude();
  float f_course();
  float f_speed_knots();
  float f_speed_mph();
  float f_speed_mps();
  float f_speed_kmph();

  static int library_version() { return _GPS_VERSION; }

  static float distance_between (float lat1, float long1, float lat2, float long2);
  static float course_to (float lat1, float long1, float lat2, float long2);
  static const char *cardinal(float course);

#ifndef _GPS_NO_STATS
  void stats(unsigned long *chars, unsigned short *good_sentences, unsigned short *failed_cs);


  // properties
  unsigned long _time, _new_time;
  unsigned long _date, _new_date;
  long _latitude, _new_latitude;
  long _longitude, _new_longitude;
  long _altitude, _new_altitude;
  unsigned long  _speed, _new_speed;
  unsigned long  _course, _new_course;
  unsigned long  _hdop, _new_hdop;
  unsigned short _numsats, _new_numsats;

  unsigned long _last_time_fix, _new_time_fix;
  unsigned long _last_position_fix, _new_position_fix;

  // parsing state variables
  byte _parity;
  bool _is_checksum_term;
  char _term[15];
  byte _sentence_type;
  byte _term_number;
  byte _term_offset;
  bool _gps_data_good;

#ifndef _GPS_NO_STATS
  // statistics
  unsigned long _encoded_characters;
  unsigned short _good_sentences;
  unsigned short _failed_checksum;
  unsigned short _passed_checksum;

  // internal utilities
  int from_hex(char a);
  unsigned long parse_decimal();
  unsigned long parse_degrees();
  bool term_complete();
  bool gpsisdigit(char c) { return c >= '0' && c <= '9'; }
  long gpsatol(const char *str);
  int gpsstrcmp(const char *str1, const char *str2);

#if !defined(ARDUINO)
// Arduino 0012 workaround
#undef int
#undef char
#undef long
#undef byte
#undef float
#undef abs
#undef round


Thank is advance...

Kind Regards.
4  Using Arduino / Programming Questions / Re: Use of the serial port monitor. on: January 12, 2013, 12:49:36 am
Alright so I tried again setting the baud rate and viewing in the serial port monitor. The end of the Hello World is a little bit mangled. I don't know why yet though:

  Software serial multple serial test
 Receives from the hardware serial, sends to software serial.
 Receives from software serial, sends to hardware serial.
 The circuit:
 * RX is digital pin 10 (connect to TX of other device)
 * TX is digital pin 11 (connect to RX of other device)
 Not all pins on the Mega and Mega 2560 support change interrupts,
 so only the following can be used for RX:
 10, 11, 12, 13, 50, 51, 52, 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69
 Not all pins on the Leonardo support change interrupts,
 so only the following can be used for RX:
 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 (MISO), 15 (SCK), 16 (MOSI).
 created back in the mists of time
 modified 25 May 2012
 by Tom Igoe
 based on Mikal Hart's example
 This example code is in the public domain.
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

void setup() 
  // set the data rate for the SoftwareSerial port
  Serial.println("Hello, world?");

void loop()
  Serial.println("Hello, world?"); 


Hello, wor¶ö

5  Using Arduino / Programming Questions / Use of the serial port monitor. on: January 12, 2013, 12:34:25 am
I have an Arduino Uno connected to Com3 and I'm playing with a serial communication sample I will paste in. I see there is a Serial.println so my goal right now is to view the output. I'm trying to do that with the IDE's serial port monitoring feature but whats coming out doesn't appear to be in ASCII form. It looks very coded. I'm a little bit new to the platform. Is there some way to connect to the Uno by USB and watch the println's come out? Perhaps maybe telnet? I'm not sure what the answer is here yet.

 The circuit: 
 * RX is digital pin 10 (connect to TX of other device)
 * TX is digital pin 11 (connect to RX of other device)
 Not all pins on the Mega and Mega 2560 support change interrupts, 
 so only the following can be used for RX: 
 10, 11, 12, 13, 50, 51, 52, 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69
 Not all pins on the Leonardo support change interrupts, 
 so only the following can be used for RX: 
 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 (MISO), 15 (SCK), 16 (MOSI).
 created back in the mists of time
 modified 25 May 2012
 by Tom Igoe
 based on Mikal Hart's example
 This example code is in the public domain.
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

SoftwareSerial mySerial(10, 11); // RX, TX

void setup() 
  // Open serial communications and wait for port to open:
  while (!Serial) {
    ; // wait for serial port to connect. Needed for Leonardo only

  Serial.println("Goodnight moon!");

  // set the data rate for the SoftwareSerial port
  mySerial.println("Hello, world?");

void loop() // run over and over
  Serial.println("Goodnight moon!");

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