You can do this, but you need to use the IO registers directly.
Figure out which port and pin number you are needing to alter and then you can do something like...
PORTD |= _BV(3); // turn on pin 3 of port d
PORTD &= ~_BV(3); // turn off pin 3 of port d
_BV(3) is just a macro that makes the bit mask for bit 3, PORTD is the IO register. That will get you a fraction of a microsecond of on time for your pin. You can use the high level functions like pinMode() to set up the pin and then use these for the timing critical part. Don't use a variable in the _BV() if you can help it, it makes dramatically slower code.
The hardware page has a link to the pinout picture for Arduinos. You can see which port and pin a given digital pin is on.