I am very new to Electronics
OK, the very first thing you need to learn is a thing called "Ohm's law".
Ohm's law says that if you fix two of the values in a circuit then the other value is forced by the laws of nature.
The resistance of an Arduino analog input is about 100,000,000 Ohms.
The voltage being applied is 5V
Knowing these two values, Ohm's law tells you that only a very tiny current will pass, on the order of microamps.
Your Arduino is safe!
(If this wasn't true then your computer would explode - it's connected to a megawatt power station)