I never had any experience in school that was like someone trying me to teach how to learn
When I was at school I was taught the "scientific method" which I believe does teach you to think critcally and solve problems in a general, reasoned, methodical way. I agree there is a sad lack of people being trained to do this.
For the past handful of years there's been a back-to-the-cave movement that's actively trying to kill any such training in public schools. They've made some anti-progress and are pushing hard in backwater states. Science is seen as anti-religion. It's scary out there!
There is a place for the "hunch" which I think is the subconscious mind doing a lot of work in the background. Of course the value of the hunch depends on the skills, knowledge and experience of the person having it.
Relying on hunches is real bad when dealing with technical or logical problems though.
Talking of the subconscious;
Do you never find its best to put a problem down, not think about it at all for a while, and then when you come back 'ping' the light comes on and the problem is solved.
Likewise you spend hours and hours banging your head against a wall searching for a fault and you are completely blind to it. You stop and start to talk the problem through with somebody. They don't say a word and yet all of a sudden the answer becomes so blindingly obvious and you cannot understand how you missed it.
Always. I also used to keep a pen and pad next to my bed for the times answers came to me in dreams.
It's about left brain focus. We learn mostly that in school especially in rote learning. But when the focus gets too tight we lock ourselves in and the needed detail or understanding out. It becomes like a 1-mind groupthink where anything outside is unthinkable.
Taking a break and relaxing unlocks that and lets the right brain input what it's been working on which sometimes is the answer or the direction the answer is in.
A lot of what schools do is to silence the right brain, turn creativity down, while building the left brain to dominance. "Are you paying attention!?" --- demands left brain focus.
We need both sides and we need control not to distract ourselves when we do need focus and not to fixate when we don't. Left brain is word strong, right brain is image strong. We need both.