I think the problem is in the Serial Monitor. I can't get it to handle a carriage return no matter how it is printed. You could try using Hyperterminal or putty to read the com port and see if that works.
Which Arduino? If it is a Nano, UNO etc. they have 2kB of sram. An array of 872 integers requires 1744 bytes. You have to leave room for the stack and local variables. Presumably 873 integers is pushing it just over the edge.
The number of bits in a sample does not determine the minimum or maximum sampling frequency. It determines the quantisation signal-to-noise ratio which for a sample of B bits is approximately 6*B dB. The reason that, on a Uno or similar processor, the audio is limited to about 4.5kHz is because about the fastest you can sample the ADC is 9kHz.