I want to have a minor objection to a statement you made
I understand giving something too much power and blowing it up
Power = Current * Voltage and it is a measure of "work".
I wish to clarify that providing too much power will not make something fail... specifically.
You can provide too much voltage with a power supply and get bad things to happen if the load can't regulate that voltage . You can provide too small a voltage with a power supply and very little will happen. You can provide too little current with a power supply and likely burn up the power supply... but you cannot provide too much current. That is why I object to your statement about giving too much power to a load. A load will only *draw* as much current as it needs.
A short circuit is a form of failure where the power source is asked to supply an unrestricted amount of current between the two supply connections, namely Power and GND. As if a wire or component of high conductivity is place between the connections. The unrestricted request for current will usually exceed the capacity of many parts, causing some rather catastrophic failures of at the very least... a fuse.