Catcher you're not asking for much . . . just asking for everything. I really don't believe that there is a single free web-based ebook that will give you everything you want. However, there are real books that you would need to purchase or borrow from a public library that will give you all of the above.
Try to purchase or find a copy of, “Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics” by Stan Gibilisco. Published by McGraw Hill (Tab Electronics) ISBN 978-0-07-145933-4. Most libraries in my area have at least one copy and if I had to start again from the beginning, it is the one book I would purchase from the get go.
This book is really a textbook that has everything you are asking for and then some, but at almost 700 pages, I cannot imagine trying to read it as an ebook . . . but I have been recently been re-reading my copy and am amazed at how much I had forgotten.
The next book I would buy is, “Getting Started in Electronics” by Forrest M. Mims and available at < http://www.forrestmims.com/>
. For that matter any book by Mims is a good introduction to electronics and a great source for project ideas . . . unfortunately many seem to be out of print, but are available used from Amazon at reasonable prices.
Both of these books are well worth their price . . . remember, sometimes you get what you pay for!
However, there are a number of e-sources that will also help you:
The Complete Beginners Guide to the Arduino <http://www.earthshinedesign.co.uk/ASKManual/Site/ASKManual.html>
All About Circuits
Mike Cook's Tutorials
Play-Hookey . . . yes that is the name
And of course no list would be complete without a little more Arduino content