Unless you put a driver between the Arduino and the MOSFET, you should really be looking for "L" suffix (Logic) devices. A 10V VGS isn't going to saturate with a 5V Arduino input, so your device is going to get HOT.
You've got eight bits of data. Eight bits allows 256 unique combinations, so an array of 32 bytes represents the 256 combinations, with each bit representing PASS/FAIL. Your eight input bits reference a single bit in the array,and the bit represents either PASS or FAIL. Simple arithmetic will give you which byte/bit to access.