1. Could anyone hook me up with detailed pictures on how to hook up the setup on a breadboard?http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/MotorKnob
Your setup may vary depending on the type of the stepper.
2. Could I use a 12v battery connected to the ULN2003 to power the motor?
I wouldn't, considering the fact that you said it's 5V rated motor.
3. What I need programming wise is to control the speed which I guess is the delay between each micro step? Could I still capture a fluent video over a long time lapse even though the motion is not continues and stops with a certain delay at each step? I was thinking that I should connect the motor with a timing belt to a larger gear so that I could achieve low speed with smaller delay time to achieve smoothness, what do you guys think?
A stepper library is a good start. Gear reduction is always good for more precise control. You will lose maximum speed though.
4. Any code template that fits my description + processing that I can start with and make my own?
See the link above.
5. Perhaps I should take the approach of connecting my dslr camera to the arduino and take a pic every certain amount of time while the motor moves the rotating platform? If so, could you direct me to a similar project which explains the components needed, schemes and stuff to accomplish?
Depending on your camera one or two optocouplers or reed switches can trigger a DSLR.https://www.google.hr/search?client=opera&q=arduino+dslr&sourceid=opera&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&channel=suggest