I think a 17Ah battery is a little underpowered compared to typical car batteries (I think they're in the ~50Ah range). But if it's fully charged it might work.
Your multimeter's current rating is not important, just set it to voltage measuring mode and measure the open-circuit voltage of your maybe-good battery. If it's not near 12V it has an even lower chance of working, as that indicates a non-fully-charged battery.
If you're careful, then yes, you can just hook up the batteries and see what happens. You do need big thick booster cables (else you'll lose a lot of whatever power you already have in the wiring, and in the worst case it will catch on fire). And make doubly sure you connect + to + and - to - (preferably, the dead battery - is not connected, but instead you connect the booster cable to a metal chassis point, like on the engine block, which is also -).
Wear eye protection, etc. etc.
: compatible with Arduino UNO, 24V operation, all I/O's fused and protected