1. What value resistor are you using between the Arduino pin and the transistor base? The diagram shows 1K, which is only suitable for very small motors. 100 to 180 ohms would be better (do not go below 100 ohms).
Avoid IRL540, it's one of the more commonly available mosfets but not suitable for driving directly from an Arduino because it needs 10V gate drive.
The 10K resistor doesn't go there, the source terminal of the mosfet must be connected directly to ground. The best place for the 10K resistor is between the arduino output pin and ground.
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