You are probbly best exploring an ultra sonic solution with three or four external transducers pinging a receiver on your mobile device.
I thought of a system like that, but I didn't know what the device was called, do you know of a link or the name of a device like that?
If you move slowly enough your 3D scans should be highly correlated. Perhaps some math would be enough to determine the Kinect's relative position.
So you mean something like camera tracking, with no external hardware? That would be great if I could figure out how.