Measuring impact g-forces is an advanced project.
The Arduino might not be suitable for an industrial level, but as a hobby project you can certainly measure the impact.
How many axis of g-forces do you want to measure ?
Sparkfun sell a simple 250g sensor: https://www.sparkfun.com/products/9332
But that is only single axis.
What sample rate do you want ?
At 100Hz the Arduino is able to do some calcuations and write it the an SD card or send it to an computer.
A sample rate of 1kHz needs optimized software, and continuous recording can be a problem.
The smaller the Arduino board, the more it can withstand mechanical shocks.
Many Arduino boards have a crystal for the clock, those can break. A mechanical resonater is better, and using the internal clock circuit is completely shock-proof.
A maximum is 80g is not a lot, so I think that any official Arduino board (not a cheap clone) should last for a long time.
My suggestion is to use one of the smaller Arduino boards like the Arduino Nano or Micro. Buy that sensor from Sparkfun. Send all the data via usb to the computer, and see for yourself if that is good enough for you. The Arduino is all about trying and learning and having fun.
There are many other ways to measure it. For example a g-force sensor with a frequency output connected to the audio input of a computer. Or a usb capture device, something special for transient recordings, or a common usb oscilloscope.