Instead of the dry theory course above, I would recommend a good old book with theory, practical diagrams and projects. There is nothing like learning by doing.
At the introductory end there are several books by Forrest M. Mims III, sold at Radio Shack. The most famous one is called "Getting Started in Electronics
". These are probably the most straightforward, hands-on books around, and definitely the biggest sellers of all time for electronics how-to guides. I think every designer/hacker/artist/tinkerer I know has a dog-eared copy of this book in the bottom of their toolbox. If there is one must-have for newbies, this is it.
One of the best reference books you can buy is an old (1980-2000) copy of the Amateur Radio Handbook, aka the ARRL handbook
. It starts with reference theory chapters on on analog, digital and RF electronics, and these are followed by practical chapters with projects. Most public libraries will have two or three copies. Don't buy the most recent one, as any five or ten-year old copy has almost the same infomation, at least in the theory section.
Also good is "The Art of Electronics
" by Horowitz and Hill, although it is directed towards science students.
Tom Igoe and Daniel O'Sullivan's "Physical Computing
" is the classic for artists and designers who seek an intro to electronics and microcontrollers. This is the only book in this list that really talks about the relationship between sensor, user, physicality, microcontroller and code.
Two classic older books for digital logic are the "TTL Cookbook" and the "CMOS Cookbook"
by Don Lancaster. The specific, chip-oriented material is less and less relevant as time goes by, but the general explanations of gates, registers and the like will give you a good understanding of the nitty-gritty of logic.