As some of the chips worked but not all I wonder if they have been programmed already (grey imports?) and need an external crystal as fuses have been set for that. Adafruit have an ArduinoISP2 that can supply a 8Mhz clock signal from an UNO pin that is maybe good enough to reset fuses.Another possibility is the fuses have been set to disable Reset pin or ISP. I think you would need a high voltage programmer to fix this problem.
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