you stick an SD card in to a reader attached to arduino. It lights up a red led and copies the contents of the USB to an SSD hard drive either directly through SATA or possibly through a USB adaptor. When it's done and verified it turns on a green led and you can remove the SD card.
What is the purpose of the SD card?
The contents of what USB? USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. How can you read the contents of a bus?
Have you been able to connect a SATA drive to an Arduino and read from/write to it?