After reading the thing i got some more questions:1)Is the bootloader loaded on the main chip's flash or EEPROM?Flash, placed at the very end of it's memory space. Any user's sketch will fill from start of flash up to beginning of bootloader program.2)What are fuses (something bootloader related)?They are 'firmware' switches internal to the chip that enable or disable various chip features.3)What is the use of the second Atmel chip on the board?It's a small microcontroller chip preprogrammed to act as a USB serial interface to allow communicationsbetween the PC and the other AVR chip on the board. This serial link is used to upload user sketches to the AVR chip or for simple serial communications to the IDE's serial monitor or any PC based application that can use PC comm ports. 4)What are the 6 pins labeled AREF on the UNO R3?There is only one shield pin named AREF on a arduino board. The six male pins next to the AREF label is for allowing for ISCP programming of the USB serial converter chip if it ever loses it's program or if one wishes to repurpose the chip function, say as to act as a USB host chip to read a keyboard or a mouse. 5)Can i program the main chip via its pins instead of using the ICSP pins?The main chip can be programmed by the arduino IDE via the USB serial link using the bootloader on the main chip. Or the main chip can be programmed using a hardware programmer via it's ICSP pins. Using the serial link and bootloader is the more normal way most program their arduino boards. 6)Does the arduino C compiler, compile the source code into the Atmel's machine language?Yes, the gcc C++ compiler/linker sends the final code, called object code and is comprised of only AVR instructions and user constant data.Again thaank you people Your welcomeLefty
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