It works the same for every digital bus.
Well that's perhaps a bit of a simplification - some busses use push-pull drivers, some use matched termination resistors.
If power drain isn't an issue the pull-up resistor would be matched to the signal cable characteristic impedance (typically 150 to 250ohms), but at 5V that's a lot of current, so for short-range busses the compromise of a higher valued resistor is used.
The temperature value coming back from the DS18B20 cannot be affected(*) by the signal path (that's one of its great plus points) as the measurement is made on-chip and digitised before communication takes place. All you need is to provide stable power supply during conversion.
(There is a mode called "parasite power" in which power is provided over the signal path - this is different and requires an additional "strong pullup" as well as the resistor - this is best avoided unless you really have to save on wiring)
(* well it could be completely lost/garbled in the extreme case, but until then it is communicated flawlessly)