For the distance I choose a Sharp GP2Y0A02YK0F, which goes up to 150cm but it uses ~0.4v at 150cm
A Seeeduino Stalker v2.3, because I need to log my data
A Bluetooth Bee for the Seeeduino Stalker
But the Seeeduino Stalker v2.3 only supports 0.3v IO but my sensor would need 0.4v, I guess that could be a problem.
Not an I/O problem. The GP2Y0A02YK0F produces an analog output voltage between 2.8V and 0.4V. The Seeeduino Stalker v2.3 can measure voltages between 0V and 3.3V.
You might have a problem with power. The Seeeduino Stalker v2.3 runs on 3.3V but the GP2Y0A02YK0F needs 4.5V to 5.5V. I hope you can get 5V from the board.
Another problem you might hit is that there is no such thing as "Seeeduino Stalker v2.3". The current production version is 2.2:http://www.seeedstudio.com/wiki/index.php?title=Seeeduino_Stalker