OK, but is there a way to just 100% solid limit the voltage to a desired value? So whenever a spike happens, the component just shaves it off clean.
Yes, use a silicon diode or Schottky diode between the signal and a power supply with a voltage just below the desired limit voltage, with a capacitor across the supply to absorb the energy. That is how the pin protection diodes work.
I tried, just now, covering the cables with aluminum foil.
The ultimate is to add a buffer on the front end, rather than just putting a signal into an expensive chip.