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Author Topic: power outage recovery using DS1307 Real Time Clock  (Read 4096 times)
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Space Coast Florida
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I have a project that uses a state machine with a master counter. The counter will have a maximum value of 750 or so. The state will be no larger than 50. As the counter updates every second it needs to be stored along with the state. The life span of the EEPROM rules him out so I decided to use the  leftover space on the RTC memory map. On power up I will read the contents of the ram to get state and counter values (If there was a power outage the numbers will not be state = 0 and counter = 0) and plug those values into the program during setup so that the state machine can resume where it left off.

.....So the question is how best to cut up that 750 number to store it in a couple of bytes on the RTC and then to reassemble the number after reading from the RAM.   
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So the question is how best to cut up that 750 number
highByte() and lowByte().

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and then to reassemble the number after reading from the RAM.   
word().
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Word!
have you got any example code showing how to implement such a thing?
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Did you bother looking at the reference page?
http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/WordCast
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Need  the Wire page too.
With DS1307, start by setting the register pointer to byte 56 where the battery backed SRAM starts.
Then do 2 Wire.send messages to send the data over.

Same for reading it back.
Set the register pointer, then do 2 Wire.read (wire.receive?) to bring the 2 bytes back.
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Did you bother looking at the reference page?
http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/WordCast
I did and found it rather terse.
 I have established two way communications with the RTC that is working with only a few bugs.
The code is ugly and I don't understand everything going on yet  but the real issue is the smashing and reconstruction of the data.

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You have the number stored using data type int, yes?
Code:
int bigNumber = 750;

To send it out, after the address is set up:
Wire.write (highByte(bigNumber));
Wire.write (lowByte(bigNumber));

to put it back, after the address is set up:
upperByte = Wire.read();
lowerByte = Wire.read();

then
bigNumber = word(upperByte, lowerByte);
or
bigNumber = (upperByte <<8) + lowerByte; // shift upper bits into upper byte location, add in lower bits

or without interim storage:
bigNumber = (Wire.read() << 8) + Wire.read();

http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Wire
http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/WireWrite
http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/WireRead
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You have the number stored using data type int, yes?
No I used Byte which was what the example showed. It seemed right should I change it?
I will post the trimmed down example I am working with.

Code:
/* Q(1-2) - (Q1) Memory initialization  (Q2) RTC - Memory Dump 
 
 */

#include "Wire.h"
#define DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS 0x68  // This is the I2C address
#define I2C_WRITE Wire.write
#define I2C_READ Wire.read
// Global Variables
int command = 0;       // This is the command char, in ascii form, sent from the serial port     
int i;
long previousMillis = 0;        // will store last time Temp was updated
byte second, minute, hour, dayOfWeek, dayOfMonth, month, year;
byte test;
byte zero;
byte highbyte;
byte lowbyte;
byte state;

// Convert normal decimal numbers to binary coded decimal
byte decToBcd(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/10*16) + (val%10) );
}

// Convert binary coded decimal to normal decimal numbers
byte bcdToDec(byte val)
{
  return ( (val/16*10) + (val%16) );
}


void setup() {
  Wire.begin();
  Serial.begin(57600);
  zero=0x00;
}

void loop() {
  if (Serial.available()) {      // Look for char in serial que and process if found
    command = Serial.read();


    if (command == 81 || command == 113) {      //If command = "Qq" RTC1307 Memory Functions
      delay(100);     
      if (Serial.available()) {
        command = Serial.read();
        if (command == 49) {        //If command = "1" RTC1307 Initialize Memory - All Data will be set to
          // 255 (0xff).  Therefore 255 or 0 will be an invalid value. 
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);   // 255 will be the init value and 0 will be considered
          // an error that occurs when the RTC is in Battery mode.

          Wire.endTransmission();
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);   

        // load dummy values to read back
          I2C_WRITE(0X08); // Set the register pointer to 33 for second half of registers. Only 32 writes per connection allowed.
          I2C_WRITE(24);
          I2C_WRITE(0X09); // Set the register pointer to 33 for second half of registers. Only 32 writes per connection allowed.
          I2C_WRITE(52);
          I2C_WRITE(0X0A); // Set the register pointer to 33 for second half of registers. Only 32 writes per connection allowed.
          I2C_WRITE(200);

          Wire.endTransmission();

          Serial.println(": RTC1307 Initialized Memory");
        }
        else if (command == 50) {      //If command = "2" RTC1307 Memory Dump

          Serial.println(": RTC 1307 Dump Begin");
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);
          I2C_WRITE(0x08);                             // Set the register pointer to (0x08) to read first memory byte
          Wire.endTransmission();                     
          Wire.requestFrom(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS, 1);     // In this case only read one byte
          state = Wire.read();
          //Serial.println(": RTC 1307 Dump Begin");
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);
          I2C_WRITE(0x09);                             // Set the register pointer to (0x08) to read first memory byte
          Wire.endTransmission();                     
          Wire.requestFrom(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS, 3);     // In this case only read one by
          highbyte
            = Wire.read();


          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);
          I2C_WRITE(0x20);
          Wire.endTransmission();
          Wire.requestFrom(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS, 32); 
          for (i = 32; i <= 63; i++) {         //Register 32-63 - only 32 registers allowed per I2C connection
            test = I2C_READ();
            Serial.print(i);
            Serial.print(": ");
            Serial.print(test, DEC);
            Serial.print(" : ");
            Serial.println(test, HEX);
          }
          Serial.println(" RTC1307 Dump end");
        }
      } 
    }
    Serial.print("Command: ");
    Serial.println(command);     // Echo command CHAR in ascii that was sent
  }
  command = 0;                 // reset command
  delay(100);
}
//*****************************************************The End***********************



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You can only store 0-255 in a byte.
To store 0-65535 (which is where 750 fits in) you need to use an int.
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You can only store 0-255 in a byte.
To store 0-65535 (which is where 750 fits in) you need to use an int.

Check!
Makes sense. I was chopping it up in hundreds tens and ones. So 65535  is represented by two bytes. Int is doubleprecision ..Highbyte & Lowbyte.... Word puts them together.....got it

 Thank you for help!
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"Int is doubleprecision"
Well, it's 16 bits anyway smiley-cool
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OK, Some great help so far I have gotten this much running
Code:
/*
* Q(1-2) - (Q1) Memory Load  (Q2) RTC - Memory Read 
 
 */
#include "Wire.h"
#define DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS 0x68  // This is the I2C address
// Global Variables
int command = 0;       // This is the command char, in ascii form, sent from the serial port     
byte zero;
int  state   = 50;     // State machine variable
int  counter = 4;      // Master counter variable
int magnum1 = 99;      // dummy var
int magnum2 = 99;      //  dummy var

void setup() {
  Wire.begin();           // join i2c bus
  Serial.begin(57600);
  zero=0x00;             // not sure what this is for
}

void loop() {
  if (Serial.available()) {      // Look for char in serial que and process if found
    command = Serial.read();

    if (command == 81 || command == 113) {      //If command = "Qq" RTC1307 Memory Functions
      delay(100);     
      if (Serial.available()) {
        command = Serial.read();
        if (command == 49) {                //If command = "1"  load data to RAM
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);   // 255 will be the init value and 0 will be considered
          Wire.write(32);                   // Set the register pointer to before data location
          Wire.write(magnum1);              // Write magic number before storing data
          Wire.write(state);                // Store State variable
          Wire.write(counter >> 8);         // writes the high byte of counter
          Wire.write(counter & 0xFF);       // writes the low byte of counter
          Wire.write(magnum2);              // Write magic number after storing data
          Wire.endTransmission();

          Serial.println("Data Stored");
        }
        else if (command == 50) {      //If command = "2" Read data from RAM
          Serial.println("Begin Read");
          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);
          Wire.write(zero);   // not sure what this is for
          Wire.endTransmission();

          Wire.beginTransmission(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS);
          Wire.write(0x20);         // not sure what this is doing
          Wire.endTransmission();
          Wire.requestFrom(DS1307_I2C_ADDRESS, 32);  // Set pointer to the first byte of data

          magnum1 = (Wire.read());  //magic number written before data write
          state = (Wire.read());    // Read state data
          counter = (Wire.read() << 8) + Wire.read(); // Read first byte shift left read second byte
          magnum2 = (Wire.read());  // Read Magic number written after data write
          Serial.print(" Magic Number = ");
          Serial.println(magnum1);
          Serial.print(" State = ");
          Serial.println(state);
          Serial.print(" Counter = ");
          Serial.println(counter);
          Serial.print(" Magic Number = ");
          Serial.println(magnum2);
          Serial.println(" RTC1307 Dump end");
        }
      } 
    }
  }
  command = 0;                 // reset command
  delay(100);
}
//********************************

now to figure out how to generate a random magic number
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Is it OK if the random number has no magic properties?
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Indeed
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The random() function will return a pseudo-random number. For most purposes, that is good enough. The whole topic of true random numbers has been beaten to death here, so I won't go into all that you have to do to get true random numbers. Or, how to properly seed the random number generator.
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