I have been trying to find out how to create a solid state current limiting circuit for an electric motor. Is there any way to do this reporting the current to the arduino?
The concept is simple. You measure the current being drawn by the motor and if and when if exceeds a predetermined value you remove the power going to the motor. The details of how you do all that depends on what the motor's type, voltage, and current range is, how it's being powered and controlled, etc and details abound. Some DC motor driver modules and circuits have this detection built in and either automatically shut-off or give a digital flag signal that a user can read and take appropriate action steps.