After programming the arduino in Pure C as described by Balau (https://balau82.wordpress.com/2011/03/29/programming-arduino-uno-in-pure-c/
). I attempted to complete this tutorial http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php/topic,37154.0.html
This is just the same tutorial updated for debian wheezy. Not much was changed.0. Install software
sudo apt-get install avra avrdude
- avra is an avr assembler
- avrdude is used to upload the code to the arduino uno
1. Create a project folder.
All commands in this tutorial assume you are working in ~/Arduino/ASM.2. Write some assembly code ( or use Acedio 's example )
Here is led.s as written by Acedio.
.nolist ; We don't want to actually include defs in our listing file.3. Use avra to create a .hex file for avrdude
.include "m168def.inc" ; m168def.inc defines all the pins on the Mega168 so we can
; use them by their names rather than addresses (not fun).
.list ; We DO want to include the following code in our listing ;D
rjmp main ; You usually place these two lines after all your
main: ; directives. They make sure that resets work correctly.
ldi r16,0xFF ; LoaD Immediate. This sets r16 = 0xFF (255)
out DDRB,r16 ; Out writes to SRAM, which is one way of accessing
; pins. DDRB controls PORTB's in/out state.
ldi r16,0x00 ; r16 is where we'll store current LED state
; 0x00 means all off. This is preserved over loops.
loop: ; This is a label (like main above) where we can come back to
com r16 ; Flip all the bits in r16 (one's complement)
; So, originally, we go from 0x00 (off) to 0xFF (on)
out PORTB,r16 ; set all B pins to current state. PORTB is where our favorite flashing pin is (pin 13)!
; Waiting for a specified time:
; Ok, so we want to wait one second between each LED flip.
; Our Arduino should be clocked at 16Mhz, so that means we have to wait
; 16 million cycles between flips. Different instructions take different
; amounts of clock cycles to complete, so we have to count the cycles
; to get an accurate wait time. We're going to use a combination of a
; word and a byte to get the number of cycles right, since just a single
; byte or word can't hold near enough to wait for our needed time.
; Counting cycles:
; Below you'll see a couple instructions with numbers in their comments.
; The numbers represent how many clock cycles the instruction takes.
; You can find all of these cycle amounts in the atmega168 datasheet.
; 1/2 means it can take either one or two cycles depending on the flag
; state. For these branch instructions (BRNE), they take one cycle if
; the condition is false, and two cycles if it's true. We'll only care
; about the two cycle case, since that will be happening 99% of the time.
; Also, just for extra laziness we wont care about the outside loop's cycles.
; The inner is the really time critical one anyway ;D
; The math:
; The Arduino is clocked at 16Mhz, or 16000000 cycles per second.
; Our main loop takes 4 cycles to complete one loop, since SBIW
; takes 2 cycles and BRNE will (usually) take 2 cycles. This means
; that we need to find an X < 256 and Y < 65536 so that X*Y*4 = 16000000.
; X=100 and Y=40000 fit that bill quite nicely, so we'll go with those.
; The outer loop runs 100 times, and the inner runs 40000 times per outer
; loop. This gives us about 1 second per flip!
ldi r17,100 ; r17 is our outer loop counter
; ZH and ZL are a word pseudo-register. It's actually a combination
; of r31 and r30, giving us 16 bits to use for SBIW. Handy!
; The HIGH and LOW macros just give us the high and low bits of a
ldi ZH,HIGH(40000) ; 1
ldi ZL,LOW(40000) ; 1
; These next two instructions SuBtract Immediate from Word and
; BRanch if Not Equal. Basically, we subtract one from the Z psuedo
; register (which begins with ZL, the low bits), and then, if we haven't
; reached 0, go back to the inner label. Otherwise we keep on going with
; the check for the outer loop!
sbiw ZL,1 ;2 \_ Main Loop (4 cycles)
brne inner ;1/2 /
; The following instructions DECrement and BRanch if Not Equal. BRNE
; works exactly the same as above. DEC is shorthand for subtract one
; from this register. Only takes one clock cycle, too!
dec r17 ;1
brne outer ;1/2
; Finally we've reached the end of the loop. Relative JuMP just brings
; us back to the label listed. Back to loop we go!
All we need to do is run:
Unfortunately this won't work because we need to specify the m168def.inc file. This file can be found in /usr/share/avra/m168def.inc
. But this file contains some preprocessor directives like #ifndef, #define, #pragma and #endif which aren't supported by avra. We work around this problem by copying a modified m168def.inc file to our project folder:
sed '/#ifndef\|#define\|#pragma\|#endif/d' /usr/share/avra/m168def.inc > ~/Arduino/ASM/m168def.inc
This sed command will simply remove all lines containing these unknown preprocessor directives and write the output to a new file in our project folder.
avra led.s4. Upload the hex file
avrdude -F -V -c arduino -p ATMEGA328P -P /dev/ttyACM0 -b 115200 -U flash:w:led.s.hexNote:
You might have to modify your serial port: /dev/ttyACM0