Can, you can... Question is how prepared you really are to do it !
Some of the questions and doubts you shown lead me to know that it wont be as easy as you might have thought!
So, it will surely take longer, much longer than you expected.
You want to send raw adc reading ?!
How are you gonna process them in the PC side of it ?!
Do you expect it in any specific format?!
If so, how will you convert it between both ?!
How good are you with serial protocol ?!
How good are you with the OS environment you use ?!
Start there, maybe, by filling the gaps ?!
1-ADC reading ?! Some sampling techniques and basics background is imperative for good results !
2-yes... Not sure if this would match your requirements for quality audio , as opposed to USB transfer though...
3- Uhhhhhh, now that is a long ask, i say !! People pay good money for that !! lol If you dont have a clue, no matter how much people might try, you still have a lot of work to do yourself before you can grasp it entirely !
So, my advice would be " better crack on with it, and start researching and learning !! Maybe ?