Like you I've just finished the Starter Kit , so I hope I've learnt enough to make a worthwhile contribution
The extra parts are presumably for expanding any projects & of course if you blow a part
With project 7, it may make a difference where you place the Leds. I'd try
- connecting the gnd from the LHS of the board to the RHS gnd.
- add the Leds to the RHS side of the board with the anode connecting to RHS output pin of ea switch & the cathode the the RHS gnd
- At least, for the first switch put a 220 ohm resitor between the rhs switch output & the Led anode pin.
I'm not sure if you need a resistor for all the leds as there is a resitor on the other side, to be safe, do so anyway. If they don't work or are too dime try removing it & see if that helps. The bottom 3 should be protected by the resistor on the input to the swith. So an extra one may be unnessessary or make them too dim.
Maybe try, test one switch & resitor/led at a time.
Hope this helps