Well, it appears the USB/Serial interface chip is dead, the small square one. I don't know about the Atmega328P, the large DIP part.
You can get a bootloaded '328 and an FTDI Basichttps://www.sparkfun.com/products/10524https://www.sparkfun.com/products/9716
Replace the chip, connect the FTDI Basic as I discussed earlier, and see if that will get you back in business.
Do you have a voltmeter? You could also check to if 5V and 3.3V are still okay on the board, or if you managed to take out the regulators also. In which case, get a new board and be more careful next time.
This place often has slightly older hardware that will do just fine, such ashttp://www.nkcelectronics.com/arduino-duemilanove.html
I still use my Duemilanove for checking out stuff, and I use FTDI chips for my '328P & '1284P designs.