This shield will not work with Due. It does not connect to the SPI header on Due.
Due SPI: SPI header (ICSP header on other Arduino boards)
These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. The SPI pins are broken out on the central 6-pin header, which is physically compatible with the Uno, Leonardo and Mega2560.
Try it on Uno with chip select set to pin 8.
I reformatted the card to FAT (aka FAT16),
You should use the SD association's formatter. It selects the correct cluster size and adds hidden blocks to align flash memory boundaries properly for best performance.
Modern SD cards have very large complex flash chips and OS utilities do not understand how to format SD cards for optimum performance.