7-12V is the maximum input voltage you can apply to the external DC input power jack.
The analog input pin voltage is limited to 0V-5V. Anything outside that range will damage your microcontroller.
And to clarify, you do not "input" current into a pin. The pin decides how much current to draw in response to an applied voltage. If your applied voltage is in the range 0V-5V then the amount of current that will flow into the pin is very close to 0. Just make sure you configure the analog pin as an input, and not an output.
The Rugged Motor Driver
: two H-bridges, more power than an L298, fully protected