thanks dude!it would be awesome if you can just paste the instructable link to the tutorial please.you see that is what i dont want to do, i dont want the perf board. i kinda want to design and make the PCB all on its own. instructables uses almost all those copperboards, ive seen very little PCB's that have been made by the authors, and the ones ive seen arent matices. but i guess your right, i SHOULD understand the fundamentals first before even beginning to design. thanks a lot dude.