Going a bit off-topic, but you did mention Fourier and the joy of learning...These videos from 3Blue1Brown's channel on YouTube are a real delight:But what is the Fourier Transform? A visual introductionand Uncertainty principle? It's not about quantum
No most op-amps are not suitable for driving a speaker. There are specific audio amplifier chips like the LM1785T, LM386 or the TDA2030A. But these need components round them and most need a large decoupling capacitor on the supply. Download the data sheets to see recommended circuits
You might want to look at this:- https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5590
Hi,Can you post a picture of your current circuit, so we can see your component layout and a copy of the schematic?Thanks.. Tom...
Hi thanks;Which circuit is it?The original LM324 circuit?Tom...
just a mention of "connect via earphones"
...and high impedance diaphragm earphones similar to the handset you used to get on land line telephones, ...Even so these present an inductive load and might stop your oscillator from working because of this.
See enclosed for a 'quick an dirty' loudspeaker driver.It has lousy distortion, but will make a noise....
Hi,I built this circuit;...I got it to work, but even with a good new protoboard, I ended up mounting the major components close to the board with trimmed leads.For Rs I used a 10K fixed resistor.Use 5V from USB to UNO.My meter measured about 1.44kHz, and using the 1uF output cap into an el-cheapo flat 16R speaker, it was not loud, but the speaker could be heard.
Hi,I downloaded this real simple Arduino Scope prog;https://electronicsforu.com/electronics-projects/pc-based-oscilloscope-using-arduino
i also measured the speaker in the handset itself and it registered about 100 Ohm on the multimeter.
The sort of headphones I was thinking of had an input impedance of 1K.
When you tried the 100R and it did not work, did you look at the oscillator on the scope thingie? Was it still oscillating?
would trimming leads and rebuilding the circuit more compactly, squeeze more juice out of it ?
it means the circuit is working - just not providing an output recognizable by any speaker i have at the moment.