:Be sure to select "ATmega328 on a breadboard (8 MHz internal clock)" when burning the bootloader.
I tried doing just what you are attempting and failed. Resorted to putting the chip in an arduino, uploading the sketch, popping it out and putting it into the breadboard circuit. That worked. I'm curious to see if anyone has a solution that actually works to upload a sketch from a chipless arduino directly onto a breadboard mounted chip.