In a word, no. PCs are too different to run Arduino software. However, there may be an alternative. Before I discovered Arduino, for a long time I was using a Labjack controlled by a C program running on a Linux PC. The Labjack is an USB interface which provides features very similar to the Arduino's I/O ports. See http://www.labjack.com/
Labjack interfaces are not cheaper than Arduino boards, but they do have certain advantages, including a choice of high-level development languages. And of course being attached to a PC you benefit from enormous amounts of memory, the option of running sophisticated software, and a nice user interface.