I purchased some blank atmega328s a while ago, and having used the pair or programmed parts I also bought, and all the promini's I bought, and the 2 atmega328s I had on two duemilanoves, I was finally out of options and had to learn how to use the blank ones.
So, after a bunch of fooling around, I was able to get the Bit Bang method here workinghttp://www.geocities.jp/arduino_diecimila/bootloader/index_en.html
Made up a X3 to ICSP cable, added pins to the X3 connecter, downloaded , unzipped, moved files as directed, then downloaded some more to get the avrdude.conf file that include the 328P. Set the fuses for the 328, wrote those okay, then burned the optiboot for the 328, verified it, wrote the lock bit. Unplugged everything, opened the IDE and tried to download the blink program. Couldn't do it. Tried several times with no luck, lots of reset pushing at different times & lengths, just the dreaded Not in Sync error (the one that ends with 0051).
Went back, unlocked the part, cycled power again and downloaded the standard bootloader for 168-328. Set the lockbit, unplugged and replugged for the IDE, and this time Blink downloaded okay.
Not sure what the problem is with optiboot & downloading, but I have a working method anyway now.