Replace parts with known good ones. Find the bad part.
You should have a resistor connected to the data line. I can only see that in your first picture. You should also have a large cap, e.g. 1000uF, across the power supply lines, close to the start of the strip.Instead of your logic convertor module, you can try a 74hc14 chip. Power the chip with 5V. Each chip contains 6 inverter gates. You will need to use two gates, connected in series. As with any chip, put a 0.1uF cap across the 5V & ground pins, close to the chip.
Your first pic shows a Nano. This is a 5V Arduino. The others show esp-based Arduino which are 3.3V. This could be the reason.
Why they say that a 220ohm / 470 ohm resistance is ok?
I choosed 220ohm for esp8266 + logic level converter from 3.3 to 5v, was I wrong?
Mainly from imperial experiments.
I am not convinced that those I2C converters are fast enough for Neopixel driving.