Sounds like that could be a voltage comparator
. I believe many AVRs include analog comparators, so if an MCU is part of the design, a separate comparator may not be needed. From the ATmega328 datasheet:
The Analog Comparator compares the input values on the positive pin AIN0 and negative pin
AIN1. When the voltage on the positive pin AIN0 is higher than the voltage on the negative pin
AIN1, the Analog Comparator output, ACO, is set. The comparator’s output can be set to trigger
the Timer/Counter1 Input Capture function. In addition, the comparator can trigger a separate
interrupt, exclusive to the Analog Comparator. The user can select Interrupt triggering on comparator
output rise, fall or toggle.