A larger resistor is just about always OK, and may even be desirable if the aim is for the circuit to use less power, but of course the LED may not be as bright. At some point, with a large enough resistor, the LED will not light at all. Using a 1000Ω resistor with small 3mm LEDs and a 5V supply is not uncommon, and they're plenty bright for pilot lamps and such.
If you don't have a multimeter, I'd recommend getting one, it's a very basic instrument to have and you will get no end of use out of it. A little time playing with an LED, a meter, and a few resistors is instructive. Check the voltage and current specs on the LED's datasheet if you have it. There are some pretty nice meters available for well under $100 that may be all you'll ever need, here
is one example, and here
Hope this helps!