avrdude: stk500_getsync(): not in sync: resp=0x00avrdude: stk500_disable(): protocol error, expect=0x14, resp=0x51
It could be as simple as your not timing the reset switch on the breadboard at the correct time. The method that seems to work the best is to press and hold the reset switch down, then press upload on the arduino IDE. When the IDE output windows first displays the memory size of the compiled sketch, that is the time to let go of the reset switch.
Other problems people have uploading to a breadboard standalone 328 is proper crystal and padding capacitor size. Many get the wrong size crystal caps. A 3 pin 16Mhz resonator device is simpler to wire up as it's caps are internal.
avrdude: ser_recv(): programmer is not respondingavrdude: stk500_2_ReceiveMessage(): timeout
I followed the instructions at http://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Standalone (I think there is a problem there because at one point it says to take VCCIO to the +5v rail but the photo differs, I went from VCC instead which I believe is correct)