... but is there anything I could do that doesn't involve finding another voltage regulator since the current one can only handle 1 A?
Will any of the components fry from too much current or will they only draw what they need?
...that take 6V.
Do I need to calculate the value of this resistor or is it 3 Ohms?
The datasheet says that it is designed for 30mA per segment (including the decimal points).
So the 12V goes directly into pins 1 an 5?