where does the SD card gets 5V from?I only see GND connectedcannot see the SD break out connections.
Those SD boards are notorious for fails like this. It does not have a logic level converter. The 4 resistors you see on that board are pullup resistors connected to the 3.3v power bus.Putting a digital 5 volt line from the Arduino into a 3.3 volt input on the SD card can have unpredictable and sometimes destructive results to either the Arduino or the SD card.
I don't know what is your code, but I have an SD module like yours and it works for me. I tested it with this code. BTW, I use an Arduino MEGA, but I think it have no influence in this.
It is the digital data lines (SCK, MOSI, and SS) that cause the problems, not the power supply to the SD card. A level converter of some type is recommended.