Maybe. Maybe not.
All Arduino libraries on a Windows system are under
Not on my installation of Arduino.
The libraries that were delivered with the Arduino used to be in .\Arduino-xxxx\hardware\libraries. Not all the libraries were specific to hardware, to the library location changed.
Would someone explain why there is no support for timers in the core Arduino language?
There is plenty of support for all the timers on the Duemilanove/UNO type Arduinos. They each have dedicated functionality, and are not always available for your use. The tone function, for instance, needs a timer. The servo library needs some timers. The PWM function uses a timer for two pins. There being a limited number of timers, there may not be one available to you.
Anything you can do with a timer, you can do without a timer, of the Arduino isn't overworked. If it is, having a timer interrupt it may not be a great idea.
Knowing what YOU want to do with a timer would be useful in order to suggest an approach.