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Colorado
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Looks good enough.  On the resistors though, you will soon find out that you want different values, especially when you're dealing with LEDs.  More than just the '82's like that kit offers.  Also, 10Ks are handy to have a bunch of.
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You can get a few trim pots to act as variable resistors. You don't have to connect all 3 contacts. I get them 10 for US$1 which by now is about 25 cents Canadian?

You'll lose in the shipping on small orders but have a look at allelectronics.com. They're kind of a salvage house, don't have everything but mostly good prices on what they do which is much.

You want practice with VHDL? Maybe this will help, "GHDL -- Where VHDL meets gcc ".
http://ghdl.free.fr/

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You can get a few trim pots to act as variable resistors. You don't have to connect all 3 contacts. I get them 10 for US$1 which by now is about 25 cents Canadian?

Got a part number for trim pots that work well in a breadboard/with the arduino voltages?
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Electrical Engineering Student

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I was able to -force- TPR-1k's into a breadboard without breaking anything, but it wasn't real easy.
I was using them to adjust leds with 5Vcc. And... I actually only got 5 per $1. :-(

http://www.allelectronics.com/make-a-store/item/TPR-1K/1K-VERTICAL-ADJUST-TRIMMER/1.html

Some others, no, they would need wire leads soldered on. None of them I know can't take 5V 40 mA.

When you see leads on 5mm centers, 1mm is very close to .04" where breadboard holes are .1" apart.
I had more trouble with he width of the legs but even without squeezing the legs in a crimp tool, they fit.

They have some with pins on .1" spacing but more expensive and the ones 10/$1 don't all just fit.

http://www.allelectronics.com/make-a-store/category/470100/Potentiometers/Trimmer/1.html

How much they can take, I don't know but I can say; more than a poor little IR led!
Consider 5V 20mA is .1W

If you call and ask they do have an 888 number and I have gotten info when making phone order long ago.

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I find it harder to express logic in English than in Code.
Sometimes an example says more than many times as many words.

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I've got old computers at my parents place. I've definitely used the powersupplies before for +12v (jumper the green mobo wire to ground). Is the +5v rail suitable to power the Arduino unit?
yes the 5v+ rail is regulated at 5 volts which is safe, the 3.3v rail is unregulated so stick to the 5v rail, in my setup I have a arduino clone teensy from pjrc. running some 12 volt motors. all off the same power supply. in my conversion I added a few 5 amp fuses to prevent being slapped around with all 20 amps for long periods of time.
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