Maybe a stronger reset pullup resistor? You show a 22K with a cap to ground which will make for slow ramp up, most designs only have 10K & no cap.
Have you removed the cap from the reset pin, it WILL mess the ISP programming, is MOSI connected to MOSI, MISO to MISO, CLK to CLK?
You should program at a max of 250Khz, but try slower, because the internal oscillator as some drift.What programmer are you using?
And finally there is no Atmega8u2 available in DIP package, all USB enabled atmegas come in SMD packages, so you have either an atmega8 or an atmega88.