I want the mic to be able to pick up everything it can hear with as little noise as possible, send this data to the arduino which will just send it back to a computer, where I intend to save the data into a wav file.
If you are using a computer, why don't you just plug a mic into your computer? Almost every computer has a soundcard/soundchip with a "mic" input.
...with as little noise as possible...
...What kind of clarity / quality can i expect?
There are two sources of noise. Acoustic noise, which you can minimize by using a directional mic and by getting the mic as close to the sound source as possible. And electrical noise from the analog circuitry, which you can minimize by using a good low-noise preamp/op-amp and by using a professional mic with a balanced connection into a balanced preamp(with an XLR connector.)
If you want "studio quality", you need a good mic (which is going to cost around $100 USD or more) and a good preamp/interface, or a good USB mic such as the AT2020 USB
. Of course, you also need a low-noise environment.
Regular "computer mics" and the mic preamps built-into most soundcards are low quality, and the input on a regular soundcard is high-impedance unbalanced, which is wrong for low-impedance, balanced, studio/performance mics.