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Topic: Using Arduino Uno to control HiTechnic Motor Controller over I2C Bus (Read 2882 times) previous topic - next topic

fran_kiki

Hello,
I was looking for a way to replace the LEGO NXT Brick with an Arduino Uno in order to control the HiTechnic Motor Controller. Seemed like an easy enough task, however upon beginning the project, I found that to be far from the case. The existing tutorials about how to establish the Arduino Uno as a master rather than slave device over I2C were really confusing and a lot of times didn't work with this set up. Additionally, in order to communicate and work with the motor controller, you need to know the exact memory locations of the device's registers which weren't specified in its documentation because they could be any of 8 bytes (depending on the device).  After a lot of research and trial and error, I was finally able to communicate between the two devices, using the I2C bus's communication protocol, and obtain control over the motors. Below is the code I wrote working with the Wire Library that finally got things working, and attached is a document that covers my process and many attempts.

Try not to be too hard on me, this was my first attempt programming and first program ever so I don't doubt I made errors that may seem really obvious to others.

Actual code is attached in a document because it made the post too long

Thank you for reading, I hope this helps others stuck on similar issues!

fran_kiki

Here is  part 1 of my code:

Code: [Select]
// Arduino I2C Master over HiTechnic Motor Controller as Slave
// by Francesca Bragg
// Created 2 July 2014
//
// Turns the Arduino to a I2C master device using the Wire library.
// Send read and write commands to the I2C Arduino slave to set and control motors.
//
// Components:
// Arduino Uno (I2C master)
// HiTechnic Motor Controller (I2C slave) and power source
// *optional: other devices/sensors that can be replaced/added as slaves, we attempted to connect to the ultrasonic sensor and were successful in communicating with it, however couldn't get it to function
// Breadboard Adapter for LEGO MINDSTORMS
// Breadboard/wires
// 9v Battery
//
// Physical Setup:
// Arduino Uno is connected to breadboard adapter using SDA, SLC, power, and ground pins
// Breadboad adapter is connected to the motor controller using a standard NXT modular sensor cable
// HiTechnic motor conrollers are connected to motor 1 and 2 using twisted pair wire
//
// Connections:
// A0-A3 - Not in use
// A4 - IN USE as SDA
// A5 - IN USE as SCL
// GND - IN USE to connect ground (GND to GND)
// 5v - IN USE to connect power (5v to 5v)
//
// Motor Configuration:
// Motor 1 is the left motor and Motor 2 is the right motor
// Note that motor 2 is motor 1 reversed so forward commands are - and reverse + which is why we make the percent value negative
//
// TWI Changes:
// We had to slow the communication rate of the I2C bus from 100 khz to about 9.6 khz it would "look" like the NXT controller to slave devices
// This was done by modifying the TWI_FREQ constant within our source code
// Within the Twi.h file, this conditional compilation that controlls the compilation speed, allowed us to do that:
//     #ifndef TWI_FREQ
//     #define TWI_FREQ 100000L
//     #endif
// It allows us to specify a new speed, we used 37390, or use the existing constant (100000) if one isn't specified.
// Additionally, the prescalar value had to be changed to 4 within the source code by changing Cbi to Sbi or clear bit value (0) to set bit value (1)
// because the way the TWI library previously setup the prescalar, you could only set the baud rate so low.
// By changing our prescalar value to four, we allowed for a greater scope of accepted values.
// Here is the modified section of code:
//    // initialize twi prescalar and bit rate
//    #if PRESCALAR == 4
//    sbi(TWSR, TWPS0); //replaced cbi with sbi
//    #else
//    cbi(TWSR, TWPS0);
//    #endif
//    cbi(TWSR, TWPS1);
//    TWBR = ((F_CPU / TWI_FREQ) - 16) / 2;
// This changes the speed to become 9615.38 baud because:
//  using the equation in the twi library to find the TWBR we get:((16,000,000/37390)-16)/2* = 206
//  then we plug this into the SCL frequency equation which is:
//  CPU Clock frequency/16 + 2(TWBR)*4^TWPS = 16,000,000/16 + 2(206) *4^1 = 16,000,000/ 16+ 412 * 4 = 16,000,000/ 16+ 1648= 16,000,000/1664 = 9615.38
// which allows everything to work because it slows everything down close to the normal operating speed 9600 baud (what the NXT operates at)
//
// Addresses:
// The device address is not byte shifted, that is happening for us inside the wire library somewhere.
// Device uses address 0x05 not 0x02 and 0x03 for write and read
//
// Memory Map for the HiTechnic Controller is as follows:
// 0x00 yields the version number (example: "V2.0")
// 0x08 yields the manufacturer (example: "Hitechnc")
// 0x10 yields the sensor type (example: "MotorCon")
// All of the locations above return 8 bytes defined as NUM_BYTES
// Motor 1 power is at address 0x45 and Motor 2 power at 0x46

#define TWI_FREQ 37390L  // reduce communication rate of I2C bus to 38.4 khz
#include <Wire.h>

#define DEVICE_ADDRESS 0x05
#define REG_MANUFACTURER 0x08
#define REG_VERSION 0x00
#define REG_SENSOR_TYPE 0x10
#define NUM_BYTES 8
#define M1_POWER 0x45
#define M2_POWER 0x46

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
int getManufacturer(char *s) // return length of s
{
 int i = 0; // declare variable i which represents the index into the array; arrays begin at 0 which is why we set i=0
 // Read from device
 Wire.beginTransmission(DEVICE_ADDRESS); //begin transmission at DEVICE_ADDRESS (connect to device 0x05
 Wire.write(REG_MANUFACTURER); // write to the internal register you want to read; the manufacturer
 Wire.endTransmission(1); // send stop sequence (true(1)); master will release I2C bus

 Wire.requestFrom(DEVICE_ADDRESS, NUM_BYTES); // request 8 bytes from DEVICE_ADDRESS
 while (Wire.available()) // while available,
 {
   s[i++] = Wire.read(); // i++ increments i so we can store the new data in a sequential space on the array
 }
 s[i] = '\0'; // all strings in C are terminated with a zero (null character); need zero because zeros terminate strings and tells the print ln when to stop.
 return i; // length of the string contained in variable i
}

int getSensorType(char *s)// return length of s
{
 int i; // declare variable i which represents the index into the array; arrays begin at 0 which is why we set i=0
 // Read from device
 Wire.beginTransmission(DEVICE_ADDRESS); //begin transmission at DEVICE_ADDRESS (connect to device 0x05
 Wire.write(REG_SENSOR_TYPE); // write to the internal register you want to read; the sensor type
 Wire.endTransmission(1); // send stop sequence (true(1)); master will release I2C bus

 Wire.requestFrom(DEVICE_ADDRESS, NUM_BYTES); // request 8 bytes from DEVICE_ADDRESS
 while (Wire.available()) // while available,
 {
   s[i++] = Wire.read(); // i++ increments i so we can store the new data in a sequential space on the array
 }
 s[i] = '\0'; // all strings in C are terminated with a zero (null character); need zero because zeros terminate strings and tells the print ln when to stop.
 return i; // length of the string contained in variable i
}

int getVersionNumber(char *s)// return length of s
{
 int i; // declare variable i which represents the index into the array; arrays begin at 0 which is why we set i=0
 // Read from device
 Wire.beginTransmission(DEVICE_ADDRESS); // begin transmission at DEVICE_ADDRESS (connect to device 0x05
 Wire.write(REG_VERSION); // write to the internal register you want to read; the sensor version
 Wire.endTransmission(1); // send stop sequence (true(1)); master will release I2C bus

 Wire.requestFrom(DEVICE_ADDRESS, NUM_BYTES); // request 8 bytes from DEVICE_ADDRESS
 while (Wire.available()) // while available,
 {
   s[i++] = Wire.read(); // i++ increments i so we can store the new data in a sequential space on the array
 }
 s[i] = '\0'; // all strings in C are terminated with a zero (null character); need zero because zeros terminate strings and tells the print ln when to stop.
 return i; // length of the string contained in variable i
}


fran_kiki

And here is part 2:

Code: [Select]

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
int motor1(int percent)
{
 // if percentage is between -100 and 100
 if (-100 <= percent && percent <= 100)
 {
 // set motor 1 to percentage value
    Wire.beginTransmission(DEVICE_ADDRESS); //begin transmission at DEVICE_ADDRESS (connect to device 0x05
    Wire.write(M1_POWER); // write to motor 1 power address
    Wire.write(percent); // send the data byte; write the percent specified when function is called to above motor
    Wire.endTransmission(0); // send a restart message to keep the connection alive (false(0)); master will not release bus
    return 1; // return true (1)
 }
 // else return false (0)
 else
    return 0;
}

int motor2(int percent)
{
 // if percentage is -100<=percent<=100
 if (-100 <= percent && percent <= 100)
 {
 // then set motor 2 to percentage value
    Wire.beginTransmission(DEVICE_ADDRESS); //begin transmission at DEVICE_ADDRESS (connect to device 0x05)
    Wire.write(M2_POWER); // write to motor 2 power address
    Wire.write(percent); // send data byte; write the percent specified when function is called to the motor above
    Wire.endTransmission(0); // send a restart message to keep the connection alive (false(0)); master will not release bus
    return 1; // return true (1)
 }
 // else return false (0)
 else
    return 0;
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
int motor1and2(int pwr1, int pwr2)
{
 //set motor 1 and motor 2 to move at the same time by setting power
 motor1(pwr1);
 motor2(pwr2);
}
 
//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void stop(void)
{
 //stop motors by setting power to 0
 motor1(0);
 motor2(0);
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void turnLeft(int pwr, long t) //t is in miliseconds
{
 //Turn robot left: send right wheel forward and left back
 // write the percent specified when function is called to motor 1 and motor 2
 motor1(-pwr);
 motor2(-pwr);
 delay(t);
 stop();
}

void turnRight(int pwr, long t) //t is in miliseconds
{
 //Turn robot right: send left wheel forward and right back
 // write the percent specified when function is called to motor 1 and motor 2
 motor1(pwr);
 motor2(pwr);
 delay(t);
 stop();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void straight(int pwr, long t) //t is in miliseconds
{
 motor1and2(pwr, -pwr);
 delay(t);
 stop();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void reverse(int pwr, long t) //t is in miliseconds
{
 motor1and2(-pwr, pwr);
 delay(t);
 stop();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// from this test I found the robot to advance about 9.5 in per second
// the first interval of time (1 second) it advanced 8 in, the next (2.5 sec) 31 in, and the last (5 sec) 41.5 in
// this means it travled a total of 80.5 in in 8.5 sec at motor power 10
// *note that testing was done in a stairwell, the surface had grippers so it was smooth, but a bit rigid
// the average distances traveled per second during each interval were: 8, 12.4, and 8.3; the average of these being 9.56
// the average on the total distance after the total time was 9.47; so the average of the two was about 9.5 in
// this can be used to make a proportion if you want to calculate the exact distance you want the bot to travel
// note the exact distance will vary greatly between surfaces and across speeds, but similar methods can be used to establish this estimate
//
void straightTest(void)
{
 straight(10, 1000);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 straight(10, 2500);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 straight(10, 5000);
 stop();
 delay(1000);
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// I was trying to achieve a 90 degree turn
// this was really hard to determine since I'm setting the length the motors run rather than controlling the degree turned
// I noticed that in order to achieve the same turn, the left turn needed a slightly longer run time,
// perhaps because I was calling it second in the loop, or perhaps because of the way the motors are daisy chained
//
void turnRightTest(void)
{
 turnRight(25, 850);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 turnRight(25, 875);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 turnRight(25, 900);
 stop();
 delay(1000);
}

void turnLeftTest(void)
{
 turnLeft(25, 850);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 turnLeft(25, 875);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
 turnLeft(25, 900);
 stop();
 delay(2000);
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void exampleRun(void)
{
 straight(10, 2105); // moves robot forward about 20 in (when power is set to 10%)
 stop();
 turnLeft(25, 875); // when testing turns, running for 8.75 seconds seemed to create a 90 degree turn (left)on the surface tested (when power was set to 25%)
 stop();
 delay(500);
 straight(10, 3158); // moves robot forward about 30 in (when power is set to 10%)
 stop();
 reverse(10, 1053); // reverses robot about 10 in (when power is set to 10%)
 stop();
 turnRight(25, 850); // when testing turns, running for 8.5 seconds seemed to create a 90 degree turn (right) on the surface tested (when power was set to 25%)
 stop();
 straight(10, 4210); // moves robot forward about 40 in (when power is set to 10%)
 stop();
}

//----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

void setup()
{
 Serial.begin(9600);
 Wire.begin(); // join i2c bus (address optional for master)
}

void loop()
{
 char a[10];
 int length;
 length = getSensorType(a);
 Serial.println(a);
 exampleRun();
 
 while(true); // while loop exits once the condition is false; in this case it never is so we are stuck here and the loop doesn't repeat
}

emwdx

This is incredibly helpful - exactly what I knew someone likely had done before me.

Thanks so much for putting in the time to build this. Even more thanks are deserved for the amazing documentation of your process.

You'll made a class full of robotics students happy when I share this with them tomorrow!

Best,
Evan


NullPointerException22

FYI - the reason it shows up as 0x05 instead of 0x01 is because you left the white wire floating. If you connect the white wire to +5v through a 10k resistor, the controller will show up as 0x01.

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