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Topic: Essential electronic components (Read 3842 times) previous topic - next topic

Zealot

Apr 27, 2015, 01:06 pm Last Edit: Apr 27, 2015, 02:51 pm by Zealot
I would like to build up a basic set of components for Arduino projects. Because I don't want to pay 10x shipping, I'd like to order all (or at least most) of it at once.

What I already have is a set of resistors.

What I'm looking for are
- transistors
- capacitors
- diodes

What I have in mind:

Capacitors:
- Ceramic
   - 22pF
   - 10nF
   - 100nF
- Electrolytic
   - 0.1uF
   - 1uF
   - 10uF
   - 100uF
   - 220uF
   - 1000uF
   - 4700uF

Diodes:
   - 1N4007
   - 1N4001
   - 1N4004
   - 1N4148

Transistor:
- NPN
   - BC547B
   - 2N3904
   - 2N2222
   - TIP120
- PNP
   - 2N3906
   - BC557

Does this make sense? What else should I get?

MarkT

Logic level MOSFETs, schottky diodes, low-voltage rail-to-rail opamps, comparators,
motor drivers, 74HC595 shift registers.  ULN2803 octal darlington.  LM386 audio amp,
hookup wire, breadboards, switches/buttons, 10k linear potentiometers...

Forget most of those transistors, try to find more modern high performance devices like
ZTX851, STX450/STX550 - these are superbeta transistors with more switching gain.
For higher currents use MOSFETs, not bipolar.
[ I DO NOT respond to personal messages, I WILL delete them unread, use the forum please ]

mcufan

BC547B, 2N3904, 2N2222 - You do not need it, all these are very similar, usually replacements
2N3906, BC557 - the same. Buy one of these, except you want to experiment

- Definitely add few Shotky diodes.
- Few headers (male and female, 40-pin)
- Definitely few Zener diodes (3.6v, 5.1V, ...)
- Few fixed (3.3, 5, 12V at least) and variable voltage regulators (LM317T or similar)
- Few small heat sinks (perhaps)
- Few FETs

Etc. The best is to get few dozen projects you have in mind, got all you need and few spare components.

TomGeorge

#3
Apr 27, 2015, 01:46 pm Last Edit: Apr 27, 2015, 01:48 pm by TomGeorge
Hi

- 1N4007
- 1N4001 001 and 004 same except for lower reverse voltage rating, 007 work just the same.
- 1N4004
- 1N4148

The electrolytic capacitors get in 16V and 25V voltages.

10K linear pots, good for checking analog inputs, simulating sensors.

Pack or RED and Pack of Green LEDs plus resistors to go with them say 220R.

2N3904 NPN   2N3906 PNP.

4N25 or similar opto-couplers.

Any arduino base stuff on ebay that's on auction with free postage that may look interesting.

Tom.... :)
(I must do an inventory one day)
Everything runs on smoke, let the smoke out, it stops running....

Zealot

#4
Apr 27, 2015, 01:50 pm Last Edit: Apr 27, 2015, 01:59 pm by Zealot
BC547B, 2N3904, 2N2222 - You do not need it, all these are very similar, usually replacements
2N3906, BC557 - the same. Buy one of these, except you want to experiment
Which one would you recommend?


Quote
- Definitely add few Shotky diodes.
- Few headers (male and female, 40-pin)
- Definitely few Zener diodes (3.6v, 5.1V, ...)
- Few fixed (3.3, 5, 12V at least) and variable voltage regulators (LM317T or similar)
- Few small heat sinks (perhaps)
- Few FETs

Etc. The best is to get few dozen projects you have in mind, got all you need and few spare components.
I already have
- 74HC595 shift registers
- L293DNE motor drivers
- 3,3 and 5V Step-Up/Step-Down Buck Voltage Regulator (from Pololu)

Question: What are Shotky and Zener diodes usually used for?

MarkT

You would normally use schottky diodes unless there was a reason not to
these days, they are plentiful and perform better for many roles (although not all),
especially for protection and rectifiication in SMPS's.

Zener's are used for simple voltage regulation or giving a fixed voltage drop in
analog circuitry - seldom seen in digital circuits.
[ I DO NOT respond to personal messages, I WILL delete them unread, use the forum please ]

mcufan

#6
Apr 27, 2015, 02:11 pm Last Edit: Apr 27, 2015, 02:36 pm by mcufan
Which one would you recommend?
If you are from Europe, you can buy BCxxx (easily available), if USA 2Nxxx.

They have no large difference in characteristic, as they are all general purpose transistors. They only difference is that they have different pinouts.


Quote
Question: What are Shotky and Zener diodes usually used for?
Shotky is a fast diode with very low reverse voltage. For instance, if you have 3.7V instead to get 3.0V with 1N4001, with Shotky you will get 3.5V and protect circuit from reverse polarity (as with 4001). For instance, take a look datasheet for 1N5819 or similar.

Zener are diodes as well, with the characteristic that provide only up to given voltage. Usually used 5.1V or 3.6V with MCU to protect ADC pin or MCU from frying or to drop USB voltage from 5 to 3.6V (common in Adafruit schematcs ).

Also you could buy some basic electronic book to get familiar with basic components. Usually they have many circuits for testing...

CAUTION!
Better buy first what you planing to work with, then you can make a "storage" if you need! ;)

I have large box full of passive components never used, even sometimes get handy to find few  badly needed to complete some project.

MarkT

Transistors vary a lot in some characteristics, but this doesn't usually matter for
switching.  Things like noise and bandwidth matter more for analog use.
[ I DO NOT respond to personal messages, I WILL delete them unread, use the forum please ]

mcufan

Sure, but OP is a beginner and need for beginner tasks any general purpose transistor!


russellz

Shotky is a fast diode with very low reverse voltage.
I think you mean low forward voltage drop.  There are Shottky diodes designed for use as rectifiers which can handle high currents and voltages.  At the other extreme there are Shottky diodes for microwave applications which make very sensitive high speed detectors.  You have to choose one depending on your application.

Russell.
Retired after 40 years as a chartered engineer working mostly with RF and analogue electronics.

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