It seems that these chips have internal pull-up resistors.
How would that boost the logic voltage?
It looks like a ceramic capacitor
why 100 ohm
The 74HCT245 is an octal non inverting buffer, so you would only need two out of the eight buffers in the chip. It can also be a switched bi directional buffer but you don't need that. It is a more modern chip but otherwise offers no particular advantage.Connect the unused inputs of the 74LS14 to ground for stability.
What does? It is normal to use a ceramic capacitor for decoupling and you should put one across the power pins of the 74LS14.
Should I use a 100uf capacitor?
I'm lost.Why termination resistors. What is the clock speed.Are you planning to go twice around the block with Cat-5.Will there also be 150ohm termination resistors at the end of the cable.And an amplifier, because your signal would have dropped to 2volt.Are you planning to drive one strip, multiple strips, series, in a star.??Leo..