Have you installed the bootloader for 16MHz operation?You have not told us what error messages you get when you try to use the chip on the Uno.Nick Gammon's program for detecting chips may help to diagnose the problem....R
Apparently I really set 8MHz. Nevertheless, I still do not understand. I would be immensely grateful if you could explain what the difference is and that really necessary?
The 8Mhz setting is not going to work when the chip is plugged into the socket on an Uno because the oscilator on the Uno board works at 16MHz....R
but if you need to use a chip without Arduino Uno is it correct to use with or without oscilator him?
Of course my Atmega328s will not work on an Uno.
I always use the internal 8MHz oscillator as that minimizes the number of external parts.
avrdude: WARNING: invalid value for unused bits in fuse "efuse", should be set to 1 according to datasheetThis behaviour is deprecated and will result in an error in future versionYou probably want to use 0xfd instead of 0x05 (double check with your datasheet first).I understand that this is just a warning, but it is worth paying attention to it and take corrective action?
Just ignore it. If the behavior(workaround for changed unused fuse bits handling) is ever deprecated(which may never happen) by Arduino they will also change the fuse values at the same time. The only possible concern if that ever happened would be certain 3rd party hardware packages but that's irrelevant for you since you're using an official Arduino boards definition.
...I build my boards to run from 16 MHz crystal & caps. Always have the option to not install those and run internally like you do, but the pads are there if you do want to use them.