and below the transistors in AND circuit?
Check Crossroads diagrams.
no voltage is flowing
A key point to my understanding has come about with learning that electrons in a closed circuit flow opposite the arrow symbol on the transistor.
However, when both switches are closed, a flood of electrons goes to the LED anode, essentially creating 2 grounds on the LED and the light goes off.
My previous confusion about why the output LED was "above" or "below" the transistors .....
Just a few points to get your thinking a bit better:-Voltage doesn't flow. Current flows and voltage pushes it. If you consider the direction of current flow matters you are misunderstanding something. We consider that current flows from the positive to the negative, this is called "conventional current". There is no need to consider electron flow. In a particular materiel the conduction mechanism will be dominated either by electron flow or hole flow, the two flow in opposite directions. No that is not right, there are not two grounds in any respect.Yes that is right.
Holes can't actually move since they aren't an actual thing, they are an absence of a thing.
Of of course holes can move. They even have a positive mass. So how can the absence of something have a positive mass?Because the things that are absent have a negative mass. That means that they are repelled by a gravitational filed. But that is quantum mechanics for you.
Whether the actual charge carriers are +ve or -ve doesn't matter, until you are designing actual devices!
Or doing chemistry, like electrolysis, electroplating, or anodizing.