how can I achieve something which is taking audio signal and detecting the direction of it.
For example when you are gaming, if someone shoots you from back left, your back left vibration motor on the vest simply vibrates so that there will be another dimension for the VR.
How does the sound come from a direction? If it is a stereo audio source it is your brain that makes it think of the direction, not the actual sound itself.
Wouldn't know how, but quite sure it's not a job for an Arduino. You'll more need something like an RPi, plus a bunch of directional microphones (the number depending on in how many dimensions you want to detect the sound source), plus some powerful sound analyses software to filter the sound you're interested in from the background and then determine where it comes from.
If you just want volume, you have to use some kind of envelope filter,.Note that the Arduino's ADC has a sampling rate of just under 10 ksps, and that is for all channels (there's just one ADC), so four inputs give you just 2.5 ksps sampling rate. That's enough for envelope detection, far too low for actual digitisation.
I am on starter level on programming Arduino.
Don't use the analogRead function, because it's very slow. Instead, start a new conversion before filtering, so the measurement happens during the calculation and you don't waste time.
Can I basically implement a first order low pass filter algorythm after enveloping the audio signal with a simple circuit (two 100k ohm resistors and one 10uF capacitor)